Educating Future Leaders for a Globalized Linked-Up World Hello, thank you for joining us for this edition of Business Communication. This educational program
Where to get Business Communication Developing Leaders for a Networked World by Peter W. Cardon ebook
Educating Future Leaders for a Globalized Linked-Up World
Hello, thank you for joining us for this edition of Business Communication. This educational program is aimed at developing leaders who are prepared to succeed in a networked world. Students have a greater chance of reading the text engaging in self-reflection as a result of the practitioner- case-based approach taken by the author. They are in a better position to understwhy credibility is essential to efficient effective business communication in today’s rapidly changing environment for business communication because they are in a better position to understwhy credibility is essential.
Cardon’s integrated solution, which includes the results-driven technology content, provides a contemporary yet traditional view into the field of business communication. This enables instructors to teach fundamental communication principles while also staying up to date with changes in cultural norms technological advancements. Students are given the tools to become leaders in a networked world by mastering foundational concepts, building strong relationships through effective writing, practicing their communication skills anytime anywhere.
The material in this textbook is structured around the traditional themes associated with business communication. These themes include routine messages, persuasive messages, messages conveying bad news, reports, presentations. In addition to the fundamentals, it incorporates contemporary original topics that teachers want need to cover in their classes.
This textbook uses credibility or trust as a central principle throughout the entirety of its content because professional success is dependent on the ability to manage work within professional relationships. Throughout the entirety of the book, there is a significant focus on the fundamentals of relationship-building, including personal credibility, emotional intelligence, listening skills. This item starts off with a conversation about credibility, it continues to make references to that topic throughout the book.
The ability to write well helps to build relationships.
It is imperative to have strong writing skills in the workplace in order to successfully build connections a professional brand. The critical thinking, collaboration, productivity in work relationships that are fostered by Cardon’s three-stage writing process are excellent examples of excellence. Cardon is able to develop the skills that are necessary early on in a career by studying more examples of internal messages.
Enhanced Protection Against the Technology
This book takes a more forward-thinking dependable perspective on the various forms of communication technology that will exist in the future. Although virtually all textbooks make some reference to the utilization of social media, the majority of their attention is concentrated on the relatively small portion of social media activities that are concerned with marketing customer relations. This book, on the other hand, adopts a more expansive perspective on the use of social media, one that takes into account communication within teams as well as communication with external partners. Students are better prepared for communication in today’s rapidly changing workplace, which increasingly relies on networked communication. Cardon also discusses the importance of students creating an online professional persona that contributes to the development of their own personal credibility.
Students are given the opportunity to learn how communications can build rich productive relationships between professionals through an approach that is based on business cases. Each chapter starts off with a brief business case, then, in contrast to any other product currently available on the market, examples from the case are woven throughout the chapter into the model documents. This method immerses readers in the narrative that lies behind each every business message.
Forward-Looking Vision Built on Years of Experience
The book adheres to the fundamental principles of business communication that have been developed over many decades. Yet it also goes beyond traditional coverage by including the most recent communication practices that are made possible by communication technologies by providing enhanced coverage of increasingly important business communication topics such as interpersonal communication (Chapters 2, 3, 4), social media technology (Chapters 7 8), crisis communication public relations (Bonus Chapter), oral communication (throughout the book), business plans business proposals (Bonus Chapter) (Bonus Appendix).
Why is it Important to Remember This?
At the beginning of each chapter is a section that outlines the compelling reasons why the content is essential to one’s professional success. These first few paragraphs are meant to gain the students’ buy-in interest in the topic. Students have the opportunity to watch a brief video clip of the author reinforcing this message by scanning a QR code that is located at the beginning of these sections.
The key points of the chapter are presented in a graphical format. Students are quickly engaged with important chapter content through the use of graphics lists in this resource, which also serves as a reference for students as they apply the principles to their oral written communication.
The fifth earlier editions have been gradually improved upon, the sixth edition continues this trend. More in-depth information regarding the objectives of the book as well as its structure can be found in the revised Preface to the First Edition, which can be found on the following page. The following are the most important modifications made to this edition:
• In addition to the printed version of the text, there are also digital versions of the text available in the form of e-books.
These contain links that can be used to access all of the videos as well as the downloadable content that was provided. There are 188 videos to choose from. All of these are highlighted in the printed version as well, with the URLs where they can be found provided, users of the print book have the ability to download them. A Video Contents is made available to users, the Downloads Index details all of the other content that can be downloaded.
• More than fifty new problem assignments have been included in the course. The diagrams of the problems are provided in the form of downloadable PDF files, making it simple for students to print out hard copies on which to practice solving the problems.
• The author-written programs that come packaged with the book have been subjected to a comprehensive rewrite to enhance their user interface usability. Additionally, they have been updated to be compatible with the most recent computer operating systems hardware. linkageS is a new program that was created by combining the previous programs Fourbar, Fivebar, Sixbar, Slider. linkageS is capable of doing everything that the previous programs were capable of doing collectively, in addition to adding new features. The program dynacam has also been completely rewritten, the results are much more satisfactory. It has been updated in the program matrix. These computer programs are frequently updated in order to incorporate new functionalities improvements. Students who are using the print book can register to download the most recent student versions of these programs from the following website: http://www.designofmachinery.com. Teachers who decide to use the book in a classroom setting can also take advantage of this opportunity. To become a student or a professor, follow the link provided.
• In order to execute the Working Model files that are included with this text, you will need the program known as Working Model. This software is available on the lab computers at some educational institutions thanks to site licenses. Design Simulation Technologies, the company that provides the software, charges reasonable prices for student licenses that are valid for either one semester or one year. You can get these by visiting the following website: http://www.design-simulation.com/Purchase/studentproducts.php. .
• The discussion of a wide range of topics within many chapters has undergone extensive, incremental revisions in response to comments made by users, all errors that were previously discovered have been eradicated. The extensive content that was first presented on DVD in the Fifth Edition is now available for download from the publisher’s website. These downloads consist of the following:
• The comprehensive versions of both the Hrones Nelson Atlas of Coupler Curves as well as the Zhang et al Atlas of Geared Fivebar Coupler Curves.
• Wang’s Mechanism Simulation in a Multimedia Environment is comprised of 105 Working Model (WM) files that are based on the book’s figures, along with 19 Matlab® models that are used for kinematic analysis animation. AVI files are also included in this publication. The AVI files have links that take you to the corresponding figures in the electronic books.
• Videos of two “virtual laboratories” that replicate labs created by the author at WPI are provided. These “virtual laboratories” can be accessed through the provided links. These include demonstrations of the laboratory machines that were utilized as well as spreadsheet files containing the data on acceleration force that was collected throughout the experiments. The goal is to provide students at other schools with the opportunity to participate in these activities through the use of virtual laboratories.
New research draws a conclusive link between Parkinson’s disease the deterioration of a subpopulation of neurons found within the substantia nigra, a brain region linked to motor control executive functioning.
Scientists have long known that Parkinson’s—a progressive, neurodegenerative condition that currently affects about 1 million people in the United States—is associated with a die-off of dopamine-making neurons in the substantia nigra, but multiple studies going back decades have shown that certain neurons in the area survive well into later stages of the disease. In a paper published yesterday (May 5) in Nature Neuroscience, scientists from the Broad Institute of Harvard MIT reveal why that is: there are ten different types of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, just one is linked to Parkinson’s.
“This seemed like an opportunity to . . . really clarify which kinds of cells are actually dying in Parkinson’s disease,” study coauthor Evan Macosko, a psychiatrist neuroscientist at the Broad Institute, tells Science News.
See “Study Links Flu to Increased Parkinson’s Risk a Decade Later”
In the study, scientists compared the neuronal diversity in two groups of people who had donated their brains to science: eight who didn’t have Parkinson’s ten who did. Using a technique called single-cell RNA sequencing, which can parse the gene expression activity of individual cells within a tissue sample, the team identified all ten types of neurons—each of which produced dopamine but had different gene expression profiles—in both populations found that there were fewer of only one type within the Parkinson’s group’s brains. That, New Scientist reports, suggests that only that type of neuron died while the Parkinson’s patients were still alive, is likely linked to the disease’s symptoms.
That specificity is “the strength of the paper,” Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine neuroscientist Raj Awatramani, who didn’t work on the study, tells New Scientist. He adds that the research “goes right to the core of the matter.”
See “Is It Time to Rethink Parkinson’s Pathology?”
The study authors tell Science News that they hope to replicate the work with a larger number of donor brains so that they can validate their findings perhaps identify other disease mechanisms. In the meantime, they say that their findings could lead to the development of new treatments for Parkinson’s that specifically target or replace the affected cells. Macosko says that stem cell researchers have already reached out, offering to find ways to generate the Parkinson’s-affected neurons.
See “Parkinson’s Patient Transplanted with Neurons Derived from iPSCs”
“If a particular subtype is more vulnerable in Parkinson’s disease, maybe that’s the one we should be trying to replace,” Awatramani tells New Scientist
Sunscreen bottles are frequently labeled as “reef-friendly” “coral-safe.” These claims generally mean that the lotions replaced oxybenzone—a chemical that can harm corals—with something else. But are these other chemicals really safer for reefs than oxybenzone?
Aiptasia anemones do so well in tanks that they’re considered pests in the saltwater aquarium trade.
This question led us, two environmental chemists, to team up with biologists who study sea anemones as a model for corals. Our goal was to uncover how sunscreen harms reefs so that we could better understwhich components in sunscreens are really “coral-safe.”
In our new study, published in Science, we found that when corals sea anemones absorb oxybenzone, their cells turn it into phototoxins, molecules that are harmless in the dark but become toxic under sunlight.
Protecting people, harming reefs
Sunlight is made of many different wavelengths of light. Longer wavelength—like visible light—are typically harmless. But light at shorter wavelengths—like ultraviolet light—can pass through the surface of skin damage DNA cells. Sunscreens, including oxybenzone, work by absorbing most of the UV light converting it into heat.
See “Bleached Corals ‘Sickest’ Scientists Have Ever Seen”
Coral reefs around the world have suffered in recent decades from warming oceans other stressors. Some scientists thought that sunscreens coming off of swimmers or from wastewater discharges could also be harming corals. They conducted lab experiments that showed that oxybenzone concentrations as low as 0.14 mg per liter of seawater can kill 50% of coral larvae in less than 24 hours. While most field samples typically have lower sunscreen concentrations, one popular snorkeling reef in the U.S. Virgin Islands had up to 1.4 mg oxybenzone per liter of seawater—more than 10 times the lethal dose for coral larvae.
Likely inspired by this research a number of other studies showing damage to marine life, Hawaii’s legislators voted in 2018 to ban oxybenzone another ingredient in sunscreens. Soon after, lawmakers in other places with coral reefs, like the Virgin Islands, Palau Aruba, implemented their own bans.
There is still an open debate whether the concentrations of oxybenzone in the environment are high enough to damage reefs. But everyone agrees that these chemicals can cause harm under certain conditions, so understanding their mechanism is important.
Sunscreen or toxin
While laboratory evidence had shown that sunscreen can harm corals, very little research had been done to understhow. Some studies suggested that oxybenzone mimics hormones, disrupting reproduction development. But another theory that our team found particularly intriguing was the possibility that the sunscreen behaved as a light-activated toxin in corals.
To test this, we used the sea anemones our colleagues breed as a model for corals. Sea anemones corals are closely related share a lot of biological processes, including a symbiotic relationship with algae that live within them. It is extremely difficult to perform experiments with corals under lab conditions, so anemones are typically much better for lab-based studies like ours.
We put 21 anemones in test tubes full of seawater under a lightbulb that emits the full spectrum of sunlight. We covered five of the anemones with a box made of acrylic that blocks the exact wavelengths of UV light that oxybenzone normally absorbs interacts with. Then we exposed all the anemones to 2 mg of oxybenzone per liter of seawater.
By putting sea anemones into test tubes with oxybenzone controlling what kinds of light they were exposed to, we could see whether the sunscreen was reacting to light.
The anemones under the acrylic box were our “dark” samples the ones outside of it our control “light” samples. Anemones, like corals, have a translucent surface, so if oxybenzone were acting as a phototoxin, the UV rays hitting the light group would trigger a chemical reaction kill the animals—while the dark group would survive.
We ran the experiment for 21 days. On Day Six, the first anemone in the light group died. By Day 17, all of them had died. By comparison, none of the five anemones in the dark group died during the entire three weeks.
Metabolism converts oxybenzone to phototoxins
We were surprised that a sunscreen was behaving as a phototoxin inside the anemones. We ran a chemical experiment on oxybenzone confirmed that, on its own, it behaves as a sunscreen not as a phototoxin. It’s only when the chemical was absorbed by anemones that it became dangerous under light.
Any time an organism absorbs a foreign substance, its cells try to get rid of the substance using various metabolic processes. Our experiments suggested that one of these processes was turning oxybenzone into a phototoxin.
To test this, we analyzed the chemicals that formed inside anemones after we exposed them to oxybenzone. We learned that our anemones had replaced part of oxybenzone’s chemical structure—a specific hydrogen atom on an alcohol group—with a sugar. Replacing hydrogen atoms on alcohol groups with sugars is something that plants animals commonly do to make chemicals less toxic more water soluble so they are easier to excrete.
When cells try to process oxybenzone, they replace part of an alcohol group (in red on the left) with a sugar (in red on the right) in doing so turn the sunscreen into a phototoxin.
But when you remove this alcohol group from oxybenzone, oxybenzone ceases to function as a sunscreen. Instead, it holds on to the energy it absorbs from UV light kicks off a series of rapid chemical reactions that damage cells. Rather than turning the sunscreen into a harmless, easy-to-excrete molecule, the anemones convert oxybenzone into a potent, sunlight-activated toxin.
When we ran similar experiments with mushroom corals, we found something surprising. Even though corals are much more vulnerable to stressors than sea anemones, they did not die from oxybenzone light exposure during our entire eight-day experiment. The coral made the same phototoxins from oxybenzone, but all of the toxins were stored in the symbiotic algae living in the coral. The algae seemed to absorb the phototoxic byproducts and, in doing so, likely protected their coral hosts.
This photo series shows how darker-colored anemones on top with algae in them lived longer than the lighter-colored anemones on the bottom that did not have algae living in them.
Djordje Vuckovic Christian Renicke, CC BY-ND
We suspect that the corals would have died from the phototoxins if they did not have their algae. It is not possible to keep corals without algae alive in the lab, so we did some experiments on anemones without algae instead. These anemones died about two times faster had almost three times as many phototoxins in their cells compared than the same anemones with algae.
Coral bleaching, ‘reef-safe’ sunscreens, human safety
We believe there are a few important takeaways from our effort to better understhow oxybenzone harms corals.
First, coral bleaching events—in which the corals expel their algal symbionts because of high seawater temperatures or other stressors—likely leave corals particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of sunscreens.
Second, it’s possible that oxybenzone could also be dangerous to other species. In our study, we found that human cells can also turn oxybenzone into a potential phototoxin. If this happens inside the body, where no light can reach, it’s not an issue. But if this occurs in the skin, where light can create toxins, it could be a problem. Previous studies have suggested that oxybenzone could pose health risks to people, some researchers have recently called for more research into its safety.
See “Sunscreen Ingredients Absorbed into Blood: Study”
Finally, the chemicals used in many alternative “reef-safe” sunscreens contain the same alcohol group as oxybenzone—so could potentially also be converted to phototoxins.
We hope that, taken together, our results will lead to safer sunscreens help inform efforts to protect reefs.
Djordje Vuckovic is PhD candidate in Civil Environmental Engineering at Stanford University Bill Mitch is a Professor of Civil Environmental Engineering at Stanford University.
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.
Researchers catch release a vaquita in 2017, obtaining genetic information used in the current study.
Mother calf vaquitas. As the world’s smallest cetaceans, adults will only grow to be about 150 centimeters (just shy of 5 feet) long.
A female juvenile vaquita was photographed in 2017. When fully grown, she’ll weigh around 55 kilograms (120 pounds).
For many animals, genetic diversity is crucial to survival because it affords the population some flexibility when encountering changes in the environment. Individuals may be lost, but variation helps protect whole populations from being wiped out in one fell swoop. Enter the vaquita (Phocoena sinus): the world’s smallest cetacean. These happy-looking porpoises, which occupy a small area in the Gulf of California, are critically endangered, with only 10 individuals estimated to remain in existence, giving conservationists doubts about the species’ survival due to genetic inbreeding.
A study published yesterday (May 5) in Science examined genomic data from archived vaquita tissue samples found that genetic diversity has been low yet stable among the animals for the last 1,000 years or so, indicating that the current lack of variation should not drive the species to extinction. The biggest threat to the vaquita’s continued existence is fishing, as they often become entangled in illegal gillnets.